8 Things You Need To Know About Disability

8 Things You Need To Know About Disability Discrimination
1- At the Federal and State level, discrimination against employees with disabilities is prohibited by law. Under the Federal law, the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) prohibits discriminatory actions taken by employers against their employees. The same applies at the State level in California and is regulated by the Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA). Amongst other recognized protected classes and or characteristics, employees with physical or mental disabilities have rights that protect them from being discriminated against based on their disability. Employees with disabilities in California have many rights under FEHA, however it is a matter of knowing your rights as a disabled employee in order to know you have a claim against your employer or organization who has violated those rights. Call a Disability Discrimination Lawyer to discuss this further.
2- An employee may have a disability discrimination case if they can show that they had a recognized disability, they possessed the skills and qualifications for the position they occupied at the time or applied for, they were subjected to adverse treatment in the workplace, and the reason for this treatment was based on their recognized disability. A Disability Discrimination Lawyer in your area is the professional to contact in this kind of situation,
3- Recognized mental disabilities under FEHA may include mental or psychological disorders such as learning disabilities, associated deficits and disorders, intellectual disabilities, organic brain syndrome, and/or emotional or mental illness. A recognized physical disability under FEHA may include any physical impairment by a physiological disease, disorder, condition, غير مجاز مي باشدmetic disfigurement, or any loss of control of the body. Physical impairments must affect the employee's body system as well as limit major life activity. Consider speaking to a Disability Discrimination Lawyer for more assistance.
4- The burden of proof is on the plaintiff, in this case, the employee, to prove that he or she has been discriminated against by the employer. In order to prove an employee has been discriminated against, the employee must prove that there was a causal connection between their disability and their termination, constructive termination or resignation from their position. This causal connection would demonstrate that the employee was terminated based on their disability. For example, an employee with a recognized learning disability is asked to sit for an exam for training purposes. This employee's particular disability required that he have a person read the exam directions and questions aloud to him. When the employee sent a formal request for this accommodation, the employer said they had to let him go because "this company didn't need the dead weight of someone who couldn't handle taking an exam without having someone read the instructions for them". Here, the employer's actions and words may be characterized as discriminatory because the employee's request for accommodation triggered the employer's decision to terminate his employment (Hoffman v. Caterpillar, Inc., 368 F. 3d 709, 2004 U.S. App.) Therefore, there is a direct causal link between the employee's disability and the decision to terminate. In this scenario the employee would be able to draw this link and have a potential action against the employer for disability discrimination under FEHA. For a clearer understanding of this contact a Disability Discrimination Lawyer.
5- If the case was to go to trial, the employee in this scenario would have to show that their disability was the substantial and driving force behind the termination.(Horsford v. Board of Trustees of Calif. State Univ. (2005)) Referring back to the employee with the learning disability, let's say prior to the employee's request for accommodation he had been caught stealing products from his job-site. Based on those facts the employer may argue that the reason for firing the employee was based on the theft. Therefore, the employee may not be able to prove that his disability was the substantial cause of his termination. Asking a Disability Discrimination Lawyer is the best way to pursue a disability discrimination case.
6- As mentioned previously, an employer's choice of words can be calculated to being discriminatory and contribute to the evidence that the employee was wrongfully terminated. An employer may choose to verbalize, or write words or make remarks that may be discriminatory. This could occur anywhere from being said in an email or in passing in the break room. In some circumstances the remark could be characterized as discriminatory even if the remark was not directed at the employee with a disability (Metoyer v. Chassman (9th 2007)) For example, referring the employee with the learning disability, prior to his termination his employer may have made jokes at the company Christmas party to other employees about "how lazy people with disabilities are". Here, even though this comment was made to another employee, the employee with the disability may present this as evidence that their disability was the ultimate cause of his termination. However, keep in mind that it bolsters an employee's claim if the remarks made by the employer were related to the ultimate decision to terminate the employee otherwise they may be considered "stray remarks" (Waterhouse v. Hopkins (1989)). In California, "stray remarks", which may be discriminatory remarks made outside of the decision-process to terminate an employee, are still taken into account and considered part of all evidence as a whole (Reid v. Google, Inc. (2010)). With the assistance of a Disability Discrimination Lawyer, an employee can make claim against their former employer.
7- An employee may strengthen their claim if they can prove that their employer did not implement the reasonable accommodation. Depending on the circumstances and the particular disability, in general, an employer would need to reasonably accommodate an employee through modifications and adjustments, facilitate processes that would enable the employee to carry out essential job functions, and provide paid or unpaid leave to the employee while they receive treatment for their disability. Some ways that an employer could accommodate the disabled employee would be by allowing the employee to switch to a part-time position, allow flexibility in scheduling, adjust facilities within the workplace to be accessible to the employee based on the employee's disability needs, provide extra training to ensure the employee receives an equal opportunity in comparison to all other employees, allow the employee to have support or guide dog accompany them at work,
8- Above all, it is imperative that the employer maintains open communication with the employee in relation to any changes in their needs as a disabled employee, also known as an "interactive process". It is the organization or employer's responsibility to ensure that all supervisors who oversee the disabled employee are aware of any accommodations that need to be provided to the employee. For further guidance on the matter, call a Disability Discrimination Lawyer.

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Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer

Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer

Top 6 Tips for Hiring the Right Employment Lawyer
Do you know what is the top 6 tips for hiring the right employment lawyer? Deciding to pursue a lawsuit can be a serious decision within itself but choosing who will represent you in your suit is an even greater choice. Employment law issues are usually handled in civil law. This factor merely narrows your search to lawyers who practice civil litigation. Where do you go from there? So many factors need to be taken into account in choosing an Employment Lawyer. Any firm or Employment Lawyer can put together a website but having a website is not the telltale sign of a good lawyer. Below are some points to consider in your search for legal counsel.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. Who's side are you on?

Although there are many candidates in choosing an Employment Lawyer, it is imperative to select an Employment Lawyer who is best suited for your particular case. Firstly, you need to find out if your case is actually an employment case, meaning the issue pertains to something that happened at work or between you and your employer. Secondly, you need to figure out whether you need a defense lawyer on the employer side or a lawyer who represents employees on the plaintiff side. So if you are an employee, who needs representation in a claim against your employer, you will need an Employment Lawyer who works on the plaintiff side. If you are being sued by an employee you will need a defense lawyer.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. This ain't my first rodeo

What is the nature of your case? The lawyer you choose needs to have experience in your particular claim. Employment law firms focus on certain areas of employment law. Some firms consider themselves a general practice. Other law firms have handled more cases in a particular area of employment law than other firms. Taking all of this into account, it is in your best interest to find an Employment Lawyer who has had experience as well as success in cases similar to your situation. For example, if you are being ***ually harassed at work you should seek an Employment Lawyer who focuses on ***ual harassment cases. If you are of a certain race and you feel that your boss picks on you and writes you up for bogus reasons because he does not care for your race, then you want to look for an Employment Lawyer who has handled many cases in discrimination law. Alternatively, you may need a wrongful termination lawyer if you reported illegal activity like patient abuse but as a result, your employer fired you from your job. There are also employment lawyers who exclusively fixate on wage claims which have to do with employee payment. Some lawyers have experience in leave of absence cases such as employees who take a leave due to a severe illness.
The laws that regulate employment law are vast, therefore you need to find a lawyer who has handled cases in the past that are similar to your case.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. Get a free consultation

Because you are searching for the right lawyer for you, you should seek out firms and/or an Employment Lawyer who offers a free consultation. This means you get to go into the firm and have a sit-down with an actual lawyer to discuss the facts of your case without any fees attached to the service. This allows the lawyer to examine your unique circumstances and tell you whether or not he or she is confident you have a case. In addition, this face-to-face will allow you to decide whether you even want this particular firm or lawyer to handle your case. Lastly, visiting multiple firms that offer a free consultation will allow you to make a more educated decision on what firm you should choose.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. Get more bang for your buck

No recovery no fee! Some employment law firms or employment lawyers offer a contingency fee for their service. This means that the Employment Lawyer will only charge the client if they win or settle the case. Firms that run their practice this way are diligent in their work for their client and will usually take on cases that they are confident about. This provides some security for you as the client in that you won't feel you are being taken advantage of in billable hours. Also, employment law firms that offer a contingency fee for their services recognize that some potential clients may not have the financial stability to hire an attorney but their rights as an employee in California have been violated and are entitled to representation.
If you are unsure if a firm offers no up-front fees, call and ask if the firm takes cases on a contingency base before you agree to come into the law office.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. Are they a litigation practice?

Even if a law firm ticks a few boxes on your list, you should still be wary in that the firm may not be willing to take your case to trial. In employment law, not all cases go to trial, they settle. But if a case does not settle, the next step would be to go to trial and not all employment lawyers or firms are willing to provide this service, leaving your case unresolved. In order to avoid this from happening, before signing a retainer agreement you should ask the lawyer you are considering whether or not they are willing to go to trial if the case does not settle.
The legal representation in which you select needs to be committed to taking the case to trial if down the line it does not settle. This will help you to not waste your time with a lawyer who will leave your case unresolved and you having to hire new representation.
Top 6 Tips For Hiring The Right Employment Lawyer
  1. Don't be an eager beaver

As mentioned previously, deciding to pursue legal proceedings is not a trivial choice. Deciding to take legal action against a company or employer is a commitment for you as a client and a commitment for the lawyer whom you choose to hire to represent you. That being said, do not be eager to sign a retainer agreement online. Some firms may ask you to sign a retainer agreement online and with that there are risks. Signing a retainer online will deprive you as the client from having the facts of your case carefully considered by a lawyer.

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8 Main Disability Discrimination Questions

8 Main Disability Discrimination Questions
What are the 8 Main Disability Discrimination Questions? California is an at-will employment state. As an at-will employee in California, an individual may be terminated for any reason or no reason at all unless terminated for an illegal reason. Per California Government Code § 12940 an employer's decision to terminate an employee may be characterized as illegal if the reason is based on an employee's religion, race, color, national origin, gender, ancestry, age, military or veteran status, ***ual orientation, gender identity, and or disability. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are considered as protected classes and if an employee belongs to one of these classes and is terminated based on belonging to one of these classes there are remedies available. Specifically, employees with a disability, whether he or she is mentally or physically impaired are protected. In order to make a claim, the employee would need to contact a Disability Discrimination Attorney.
1- What constitutes a physical disability? A physical disability includes a disease, disorder, condition, غير مجاز مي باشدmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss or health impairment (§ 12926 (m)(1). The disability of this kind must also impact the employee both in a body system and limit a major life activity. Affecting a body system includes but is not limited to special sense organs, neurological, musculoskeletal, reproductive, digestive, and respiratory. The particular system affected would need to limit major life activities socially, physically, mentally, or while working (§ 12926 (m)(1)(B)(iii).
2- Are mental disabilities recognized? Mental disabilities that limit major life activities are considered protected and include mental or psychological conditions, which range from emotional or mental illness to specific learning disabilities (§ 12926 (j)(1)). Mental disabilities that limit major life activities includes the impairment hindering the efficiency and execution of everyday physical, mental, and social functions (ibid). Further details can be provided by a Disability Discrimination Attorney.
3- How does an employee know if they are being discriminated against in the workplace based on their disability? Discrimination within the workplace takes on various forms which may foreshadow an unlawful termination. Forms of discrimination in the workplace are demonstrated through name calling, singling an individual out, passing an individual up for promotion or opportunities, demotion, failing to accommodate a request for reasonable accommodation, involuntary transfer or reassignment, bullying, constructive discharge, and denying benefits. Although not an exhaustive list, discriminatory behavior takes on various forms and is determined on a case by case basis. For further enquirers regarding this type of situation, call a Disability Discrimination Attorney.
4- What is expected of an employer? Pursuant to the California Code of Regulations, title 2, section 11069, the employer should endeavor to facilitate an interactive process between themselves and the employee with a recognized disability. This interactive process is built on open communication between the employer and employee in order to maintain up to date knowledge of the circumstances. By maintaining this interactive process, the employer is on notice and subject to accountability for being aware of the employee's needs for accommodation. In addition, this process promotes the exchange of ideas to reach a set of reasonable accommodations that are appropriate for the individual.
5- What kind of accommodation should an employer provide? An employer should provide reasonable accommodation. Reasonable accommodation provided to an employee entails adjustments and modifications of the employee's position that enables the employee to have an equal opportunity as their peers to carry out tasks. Some circumstances may require the employer to suggest transferring the employee to a more practicable position, ensuring the job-site facilities are accessible to the employee, permitting a service animal to accompany the employee at work, supplying the employee with a reader or interpreter, providing a modified schedule as well as part-time work, providing accommodation for training or tests or additional training, and providing any other reasonable modifications to the employee's work-site and or environment. For more clarification on what kind of accommodation should be provided, ask a Disability Discrimination Attorney.
6- What does it mean to be retaliated against? Once an employee makes a complaint against their employer or against any practice within the organization regarding their recognized disability, the employee could be mistreated by means of retaliation. This situation arises when the employee makes a complaint against certain unlawful practices that violate FEHA regulations being conducted within the workplace. In response to the complaint(s), the employer or organization takes adverse employment action against the employee. For example, an employee with a hearing impairment makes a formal complaint to their human resources department regarding his or her supervisor refusing to hire a sign language interpreter for a required training seminar. Shortly after the complaint is made, the employee is demoted to a lower paying position that does not require attending the training session. Here, the organization's response to the complaint may be characterized as discriminatory and retaliatory based on the employee's protest against their supervisor's refusal to provide reasonable accommodation.
Even if the employee's specific request for accommodation is not granted, the employee is still under the protection of FEHA in that they can both be discriminated or retaliated against for making the request in the first place. Such circumstances need to be evaluated by a Disability Discrimination Attorney.
7- What is considered unlawful employment practices? If an employee falls under one of the recognized protected classes, specifically in this case the employee possesses a physical or mental disability, and an employer mistreats the employee based on having a disability may be considered unlawful. The FEHA and California Government Code § 12940(a) qualify unlawful treatment as being demonstrated through hiring practices, path to promotion selection, distribution of work benefits and privileges or compensation.
As previously mentioned, an employer is required to provide reasonable accommodation for an employee with a recognized disability. It is considered unlawful under FEHA for an employer to refuse to implement reasonable accommodation(s) requested by the employee as well as not consider recommendations made by the employee's licensed physician. Also, for further assistance on the matter, discuss the matter with a local Disability Discrimination Attorney.
8- How to prove an employee has an action in disability discrimination against their employer? There must be a direct link between the employee's disability and the reason for termination. In other words, the employee must prove that they were fired based on their recognized disability. For example, an employee is diagnosed with a condition in which their vision is significantly impaired and shortly after their employer is put on notice of this, the employee is let go from their position "because they can't see". This would demonstrate a causal link between the employee's disability and the decision to terminate. Alternatively, the employee may need to prove that the connection between the disability and the termination was demonstrated through unequal treatment or failure to make adjustments or modifications were necessary to do so.
If an employee wants to know if they have a case concerning these issues they need to reach out to a Disability Discrimination Attorney.

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3 Types of ***ual Harassment at The Workplace

3 Types of ***ual Harassment at Workplace
What are the 3 Types of ***ual Harassment at the workplace? California's Constitution protects employees from being harassed within the workplace. Employees and employers should be familiar with the Fair Employment and Housing Act and the California Government Code § 12940(j)(1), which makes it illegal to harass an employee. Harassment isn't always physical and it is not always directed at a particular employee but it may still offend that employee. Employees may be targets of harassment based on their gender, gender identity, the way in which they express their gender, or based on an employee's pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions (Cal Gov Code § 12940(j)(4)(C)). However, ***ual harassment remains the most prevalent in the workplace above all other forms of harassment. ***ual harassment can come in the form of physical, verbal or visual acts.
What is expected of the employer and or organization?
It is not always an employer who is ***ually harassing the employee, sometimes it can even be other employees ***ually harassing an individual, however, this does not absolve the employer from being responsible for the occurrence of the harassment (Gov. C. § 12940(k)). Under FEHA regulations, employers are held accountable for not taking reasonable steps to prevent harassment from taking place. Reasonable steps taken by employers to ensure a safe and ***ual harassment-free work environment includes providing prevention training. Employers are also expected to provide a copy of the California Fair Employment and Housing fact sheet to all employees upon being hired.
If an employee feels unsafe in their own workplace, it is important to discuss their potential claim with a ***ual Harassment Lawyer.
1- Physical ***ual Harassment
3 Types of ***ual Harassment at Workplace
Physical ***ual harassment is the most obvious and well-known form of ***ual harassment. It is exercised through unwelcome touching such as rubbing up against a person or physically interfering with another's movements or preventing another from completing their work. Examples of unwanted touching would be if employee A placed his arms around employee B and employee B felt uncomfortable with this and asked employee A to stop. Another example would be if employee A would block employee B with his body from leaving the copy room, preventing employee B from leaving that area without having to touch employee A. An employee who has been subjected to physical ***ual harassment should discuss the matter with a ***ual Harassment Lawyer.
2- Verbal ***ual Harassment
3 Types of ***ual Harassment at Workplace
Remarks or comments that are disrespectful insults or slurs may also be considered as verbal harassment towards an individual. Under FEHA regulations, an employee may identify their experience with verbal comments as "harassment" even through nicknames, labeling, or titles. Examples of this would be employee A nicknaming employee B "Hot Stuff" or "Big Butt Balinda". These kinds of nicknames or titles are offensive and comment on an individual's anatomy and also have a ***ual connotation.
Although the workplace is a space for professionals who are employed by an organization, some employees today are subjected to feeling uncomfortable and endure unwelcome interactions while at their place of employment. This can be distracting for a victim of this behavior, leaving him or her afraid to go to work. The Fair Employment and Housing Act regulations recognize verbal harassment as a form of harassment and specifies "romantic overtures" as a type of verbal harassment. But what exactly does that even mean? Put simply, this means romantic or flirtatious gestures from person A to person B in an attempt to progress a platonic or formal relationship to a romantic level. These attempts as in plural, are continuous and consistent.
In order to give rise to a claim, romantic or flirtatious remarks are still considered harassment whether the remarks are subtle or obvious. Subtle verbal overtures may be an invitation to go on a lunch or dinner date. In this scenario, although an invitation to lunch or dinner may be a way in which friends interact with one another, depending the particular circumstances this may be construed as harassment. An obvious verbal overture may be a comment such as "we would make beautiful babies together" or "I wonder what it would be like if we dated". These comments are obvious in an attempt to escalate a relationship into a romantic and or ***ual realm.
An individual who has this issue at their place of work would need to contact a ***ual Harassment Lawyer to see if they have a claim against their employer.
3- Visual ***ual Harassment
3 Types of ***ual Harassment at Workplace
The Fair Employment and Housing Act recognizes that ***ual harassment may come in the form of visual harassment (2. Cal Gov. Regs. § 11019(b)(1)). At first glance "visual harassment" by definition may seem obvious in that one individual is exposing themselves to another individual who does not appreciate the exposure. However, visual harassment comes in other forms that are not as blatant as perhaps a fellow employee exposing themselves. Visual harassment can be demonstrated through cartoons or drawings that are considered offensive and or insulting to the victim. For example, a male employee may draw a character of a fellow female colleague in which her breast size is exaggerated. In that scenario, the female employee is being ***ual harassed based on the visual of herself which could be construed as ***ual in nature while also making her feel uncomfortable.
More commonly, in an age of technology, one employee showing a video or picture to another employee in the workplace in which that individual finds the visual offensive or insulting, may be considered as visual harassment even though it does not involve that particular employee who is offended. For example, a female or male employee may show or attempt to show another coworker a video of herself or himself having ***ual intercourse with his or her partner. In this scenario, although the video does not have anything to do with the employee who is being shown the video, this act is still considered as visual harassment because it is ***ual in nature, offensive, and unwelcome.
Visual ***ual harassment is also exercised through posters displayed within the workplace. Posters that would fall under this category of visual harassment as mentioned above, would contain visuals that are offensive in their ***ual nature and offend the particular individual.
Lewd gestures are also recognized under the Fair Employment and Housing Act as visual harassment. This could be interpreted to cover an array of acts being performed by one employee that offends another particular employee. For example, one employee may gyrate or perform pelvic thrusts towards another employee. Although the employee carrying out the act is not touching this particular employee nor are they even conducting themselves in that way in reference to that particular employee, it is still considered visual harassment.
An employee who is experiencing this type visual harassment should call a ***ual Harassment Lawyer.

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How The American Disability Act (ADA) has protected the disabled workers?

How The American Disability Act (ADA) has protected the disabled workers?
How The American Disability Act (ADA) has protected the disabled workers
The American Disability Act (ADA) has increased the probability that disabled workers can be included in the workforce. No longer can businesses choose to not hire a job applicant because of autism, past episodes of cancer, or any major or long-term factor that hinders any major life activity (eg: vision, learning, walking, etc.). The passing of this law essentially made it more difficult for companies to pass over candidates with health complications that obstruct these candidates from executing major life activities like most people without a disability.
Prior to the ADA, it was acceptable for people with the incredible potential to be overlooked. What if the NFL barred Tim Tebow from playing in the league because he was dyslexic? Then, the thousands of people who received medical care at the Tebow CURE hospital might not be alive today. Tim Tebow's job in the NFL gave him the money necessary to create the Tim Tebow Foundation and ultimately the hospital in the Philippines. The ADA protected Tebow from discrimination based on a learning disability, allowing him to tap into his athletic potential, earn a sizeable salary, and create medical organizations to help improve the lives of thousands of people. Another example in popular culture of how the ADA has helped people with disabilities can be seen in the new drama on ABC dubbed The Good Doctor. Protagonist Shaun Murphy is an autistic surgeon. Despite Dr. Murphy's social impairments, Dr. Murphy is a brilliant medical professional, able to diagnose medical complications in seconds. The amount of lives Dr. Murphy can improve through proper medical diagnosis is astronomical, and his boss does his best to properly accommodate to Dr. Murphy's social needs for that reason. Prior to the ADA, Dr. Murphy could have been rejected from the hospital, as the director of the hospital has an obvious bias against Dr. Murphy. If a major television company can create a television drama that hinges on the ADA, then it must mean that this law has had an enormous impact on disabled workers in the workforce.
One specific improvement the ADA allowed for was that it gave people in wheelchairs the same opportunities for public transportation which can significantly better these people's performance in the workplace. Prior to the ADA, people with severe motor deficiencies had to abandon their wheelchairs if they wanted to ride a bus or train. Now, imagine being in this situation: a skilled, independently acting professional who must be carried around like an infant because of a neuromuscular deficiency or a spinal injury. It would make a person hate oneself for something that is out of one's control. I will bet that the proclivity to think negatively about oneself was probably extraordinarily high for disabled workers before the ADA existed. This negative thought pattern would logically decrease work productivity, (if the person with disabilities even had a job), increase negative affect, and plummet life satisfaction. With public transportation incorporating mechanisms to house wheelchaired individuals, this allows professionals to maintain a relatively normal social image, have a better self-confidence, and work more efficiently and passionately in the workplace.
The ADA is not only directly beneficial for people with disabilities, it is also indirectly beneficial because of how it helps businesses generate revenue. For instance, handicap accessible walkways and elevators not only allow physically handicapped individuals an easier means of navigation, but it also helps all types of people: people pushing strollers, people navigating a heavy cart, people who have chronic back pain, etc. The inclusivity of physically handicap accessible structures encourages more people to go to a certain place, such as a University or a theme park, and the increased attendance generates surplus revenue to cover the غير مجاز مي باشدts to create these structures. In other words, complying with the ADA positively impacts those who do not have a disability and those who experience the disability. Another example of this is the hiring of sign language interpreters. Since the 2008 financial crisis, United States citizens have been recovering from significant unemployment levels. Augmenting this, technology automation has also led to a decrease in available jobs. Thankfully, the need for sign language interpreters has not become automated, and the hiring of these individuals, although غير مجاز مي باشدtly for a corporation or not-for-profit institution, pays dividends to the deaf community in the workforce. Actress Marlee Matlin, the only deaf actress to win the Best Actress in a Leading Role Academy Award, demonstrates the need to accommodate people with disabilities. Matlin's success shows that some people with incredible talent need help to overcome their barriers so that they can share that potential with the world. Giving necessary resources to people with disabilities allows this to happen, and it not only benefits the people with disabilities, but it also benefits the community around those people, as thousands of people have enjoyed Matlin's performance in Children of a Lesser God.
Prior to the ADA, a person with a disability could barely find a job, a place to eat, or a means to get to either a place to work or a place to dine. People with disabilities could not efficiently navigate the cities, and if they got to the place of interest, they would have to also overcome the social embarrassment associated with their disability. Now, people with disabilities have more opportunities. The ADA promises to enforce that all people with disabilities should have an equal chance of getting a job and achieving their goals in life. The ADA allows people with disabilities to have the same access to public facilities and transportation as everyone else, thereby giving these people a life that is relatively normal and full of potential. Granted, people with disabilities are still statistically more unemployed than their regularly functioning counterparts, and public transportation and facilities are still not completely handicap accessible, but progress has been made. People with disabilities have countless more opportunities today than they did before 1990, and the increase in national organizations that are fighting for the rights of people with disabilities is a promising sign that the importance of ADA will not fade as time passes.

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How people have fought against discrimination

How people have fought against discrimination
How people have fought against discrimination
Many employees face discrimination. The ADA, ADEA, Title VII Civil Rights Act and OSHA' s whistleblower laws help females, minorities, disabled or mentally challenged employees either get and keep their jobs. Also, any employee who files a complaint is protected by the OSHA' s whistleblower and civil rights laws.
Prior to 1960, there was a lot of discrimination. Presidents such as Abraham Lincoln, John F. Kennedy, and Vice-President Dan Quail have played a major role in alleviating discrimination.
President Abraham Lincoln ended slavery in 1898. This brought freedom to the African Americans. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act protects minorities, females, and employees in non-traditional professions keep their jobs. Non-traditional professions are a reference when female works in a traditionally male environment such as engineering, construction, computer field, etc. Also, it protects males that are in traditionally female professions such as nursing, daycare, hostess, etc.
President, John F. Kennedy played a vital role in the civil rights movement. The 1960's were years when African Americans and other minorities were recognized in employment places due to the Civil Rights Act. Martin Luther King and so many people spoke and publicized equal rights for all people. Without these movements, we would be stuck back in the 1960's where segregation played a role in society. I am glad we have diversity to be the number 1 nation in the world by contributing globally through American influences. Some of the American influences are the Army, Navy, Air-Force, and Marines plus USA companies going overseas. The USA is a role model for fairness when it comes to hiring a diversified workforce. A lot of societies are affected by blood is thicker than water, the caste system in India, and other racial differences. These type of attitudes does not help employees get fair treatment in other countries as well as in the USA.
Vice-President Dan Quail played a key role in creating the Joint Training Partnership Act(JTPA). This helped displaced employees such as homemakers, people who cannot get rehired in their field due to disabilities or attrition, single moms, etc. get training and help for daycare, gas expenses, etc. This has been replaced by other programs for youth, women, and men. I believe JTPA helped you train to your fullest potential. Current programs give you minimal training and low paying jobs, unlike the JTPA program.
My mom, Sandy Dwyer, worked closely with ADA organizations. She was a member of the USA Congress. She handled complaints in reference to ADA and Civil Rights Act. Many employees were terminated because of their differences. She has processed many complaints and tried to get their job back by mediation.
My mom has closely worked with BVR employees. BVR stands for Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation. One of her clients had back problems. Due to her disability, she received a scholarship. Since my mom was a BVR contractor she was able to help this lady pass her math class to obtain her degree. There are many examples and miracles she was able to put in place.
The OSHA whistleblower act is a key because it protects employees and citizens from filing complaints against any company. Prior to working for Congress my mother, Sandy Dwyer, was a Senior Environmental Engineer. She would get many complaints from citizens. Her job was to inspect and process the complaints. One of the complaints was in reference to a sludge management plan. This was the practice of spreading manure on farm fields to help save money for farmers as well as meeting pollution prevention act to avoid irresponsible disposal or filling up landfills quickly. She found out a neighbor boy could not handle the smell and would set off his asthma attacks. She was able to show other forms of fertilization instead of manure spreading. All in all, everything was kept anonymous.
When it comes to laws California and New York set examples for rest of the states. I live in Ohio. California, New York, and Ohio are in the top 10 states for setting precedent on all laws including Civil Rights, ADA, whistleblower, and other acts.
When new laws are enacted it takes a long time to get them through the Congress. Implementation has to be accepted by each state before each city implements fairness laws.
America-USA is known to have the most lawyers compared to any country. Next is the UK. We surpass the UK in terms of lawsuits. I think having so many lawyers keeps all employees and firms on their toes. Because of lawyers and the legal system we are able to set an example to the rest of the world when it comes to diversity. Most of the world comes in contact with a US influence through the military, USA firms or retail firms such as McDonald's hamburgers and fries. Because of Civil Rights Act and diversity we hold no bars when it comes to going overseas and starting a business. Lawyers are utilized in this process to get the ball rolling overseas.
Thanks to law firms such as Steven and McMillan we as America, employees, and citizens are able to freely pursue any career without restrictions. Without law firms such as yours, only a few would benefit. Due to law firms like yours and our legal system we experience diversity and equal employment opportunities.

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4 Things to Know About Leaves of Absence and Wrongful Termination


4 Things to Know About Leaves of Absence and Wrongful Termination
4 Things to Know About Leaves of Absence and Wrongful Termination
Have you ever wondered what would happen if you became very ill suddenly and couldn't go to work? What if your child or spouse became ill or he or she was severely injured in an accident; would you have to take off work for the duration of their recovery? Suppose your doctor told you that you were in need of surgery as soon as possible? Perhaps one of your parents was in a recent accident, would your boss give you time off to care for them? What if your husband or wife was injured while on active duty in the armed forces, could you get time off to help him or her? What if you were temporarily disabled but you could come back to work, does your boss need to accommodate you?
When an employee needs to take time off from work for certain reasons, it leaves the employee vulnerable to possible violations of their employee rights by their employer. There are laws in California that regulate employee leaves and the way in which employers must respond to an employee requesting and/or taking a leave. Not all employers follow these laws nor do they implement them into their policies. This is where issues arise for the employee which may lead to the need for an Employment Lawyer. An Employment Lawyer is a type of attorney who has experience in employment law on the employee side. This means the Employment Lawyer represents employees against their employers in particular leave of absence cases.
  1. Termination? Wrongful? Wrongful termination?
An employee may run into issues at work once they request for a leave, take a leave, or return from a leave. When and if this occurs, certain employee rights may be violated and legal action may need to be taken.
The word "terminated" in employment law is just a fancy word for being canned, fired, or getting sacked. It is a word usually used to characterize the way in which an employee was taken out of their employment as opposed to quitting, being let go, or a position being eliminated altogether. Termination is usually the result of an employee not conducting themselves in a professional manner such as being late or not producing satisfactory work product.
Where does the "wrongful" come into play? Every state in America has its own laws regarding employment. In California, all employees are considered "at-will" employees. This means that all employees can be fired from their position for any reason or even for no reason at all except if it is for an illegal reason. Employers can decide at their own will to get rid of an employee when it suits them as long as they do not decide to do so because of the particular employee's race, age, gender, ***ual orientation, disability, medical condition, or if an employee makes a complaint concerning illegal/unlawful activity being exercised at the workplace. If an employer decides to terminate an employee based on one of those mentioned reasons, that may be considered a wrongful reason.
If an employee is terminated but the employee believes it is because they requested a leave, took a leave, or returned from a leave, he or she may be a victim of wrongful termination.
If an employee is terminated but it is based on what the law considers a wrongful reason, this may be identified as "wrongful termination". It is wrongful because it is based on an illegal reason. If an employee believes that he or she was wrongfully terminated because they were fired for an illegal reason, then he or she should contact an Employment Lawyer in their area.
  1. Failure to comply with accommodation request
Sometimes an employee may be cleared to work after taking a medical leave but only under certain conditions and/or restrictions. If an employee returns to work after taking an approved leave, they may ask for certain accommodations from their employer in which their employer needs to comply with as long as the request(s) are/is reasonable. For example, an employee may request to work during certain hours or perhaps shorter shifts. If an employer fails to meet an employee's reasonable request(s), the employee may have a case against their employer for failing to comply with their disability needs.
  1. Time is relevant
How much time can an employee take off for a leave of absence? Depending on the circumstances, technically an employee is permitted to take up to 12 weeks for a recognized leave of absence. There are other factors involved in deciphering how much time an employee is entitled to, but it is a determination that usually an Employment Lawyer would be able to make.
  1. Communication is key
If an employee needs to take a leave, keeping open communication with their employer is key. An employee should keep their employer informed of when he or she will need to take a leave, how long he or she expects to be out of work, and should their circumstances change, they should inform their employer as soon as possible. Normally during this time, an employee is on unpaid leave unless their employment contract says otherwise. Where an employee would need more time in addition to the 12 weeks, he or she may contact their employer and inform them of this need in the form of an accommodation request. This request would likely need to include a doctor's recommendation of the additional time off. Keep in mind however that after the original 12 weeks is up, there are certain laws that do not obligate the employer to restore the employee's same position back to him or her upon their return.
In conclusion, disability leave and wrongful termination are complex areas of the law, which is why it would be useful to contact an Employment Lawyer. An Employment Lawyer who offers a free consultation with no up-front غير مجاز مي باشدts is the best kind of legal professional to contact. Each employment case is unique in its circumstances and facts, therefore an Employment Lawyer would be useful in the sense that they could tell a particular employee whether or not they have a case worth pursuing.

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3 Basic Points About Employee Rights You Need To Know

3 Basic Points About Employee Rights You Need To Know
Have you ever wondered what would happen if you lost your job because you were in an accident and needed time off? What if a new manager was hired at your office and you suspect that he does not like you because of your ethnicity or skin color? Are you in a situation at work where another employee won't stop asking you out on a date and insists on making creepy comments about how attractive you are? Did you see something illegal happen at work like patient abuse and reported it but you were fired right after? Did you recently tell your boss that you are pregnant and you were let go because of this? What if you have a disability and you your boss denied your accommodation request? These are all unfortunate situations but many employees within the workplace endure such mistreatment. Where is the line drawn though and what rights do employees have? What rights does the employer have and how do their rights coexist with employee rights?
1. What is wrongful termination?
An Employment Attorney would be the type of legal professional to bring all of your employment related questions to, especially if you were fired. An Employment Attorney specializes in what is called wrongful termination. In California, an employee is considered as an at-will employee which means that the employee can be fired for any reason or for no reason at all. For example, your boss can fire you just because he or she does not like you, because you were late to a shift, they don't like the way you dress, they think you're annoying, or even they can even decide not to tell you at all the reason you why you were fired. Employers technically have the power to fire you without cause as long as they did not make the decision based on an illegal reason. Being fired for an illegal reason might be considered as wrongful termination.
Wrongful termination is basically where an employee is fired or let go from their job based on an illegal reason.
2. What is considered as an "illegal reason"?
We have touched on what kind of an employee employees are considered as in California and the "unless" of terminating an at-will employee. The "unless" applies to an illegal reason, but what does that mean? What is an illegal reason?
Some examples of an illegal reason would be if you were discriminated against based on your age, race, religion, gender, ***ual orientation, disability, or marital status. There are employment laws that recognize certain characteristics and classes that are protected within the workplace in a particular way. For example, an employee over the age of 40 may be terminated, but prior to his or her termination, this particular employee may have experienced mistreatment at work such as negative comments made in regards to his or her age such as "You are getting too old for this job" or "Isn't it time for you to start thinking about retiring?". These comments that were made prior to the employee being let go or terminated may indicate that he or she was let go specifically because of his or her age. This all may result in a suit against the employer because employees over age 40 are considered a protected class and it is illegal for that employee to be fired because they are 40 or older.
Another example of discrimination would be if an employee was fired for a bogus reason, however, he or she felt as though it was because of their race. An employee may be able to prove this by providing evidence that he or she was passed over for employment opportunities that he or she was qualified for and this also happened to other employees who were also of the same race as this particular employee; this may establish a pattern of race discrimination within the workplace. Again this scenario may give rise to a claim of wrongful termination and discrimination if the employee was eventually fired.
Alternatively, an employee may be fired for what is considered as an illegal reason if they report ***ual harassment and they are fired thereafter. ***ual harassment within the workplace is prohibited by law and therefore an employee is entitled to report any incidences of ***ual harassment without being fired. For example, a male employee may witness another male manager ***ually harassing other female employees and reports this to the Human Resources Department. Soon after the ***ual harassment was reported to the Human Resources Department he was terminated without reason. Here, although his employer is not required by law to give a reason for terminating the employee, because it happened rights after the employee made the complaint, it may be considered wrongful termination.
Lastly, another example of wrongful termination may arise if an employee with a disability makes a request for accommodation and in response, the employee is fired. A request for accommodation should be met by an employer as long as it is reasonable.
These are all just examples of wrongful termination. Every case is different and requires a consultation with an Employment Attorney to discuss whether or not you have a wrongful termination case.
3. How do you know if you have a case?
As mentioned previously, every situation is different and the laws that govern wrongful termination are complex. The most efficient way to find out if you have a case is to contact an Employment Attorney. The Employment Attorney in your area may ask you questions such as how long you have been employed by your employer, were you fired, why you think you were fired and may need further information regarding past incidences that lead to your termination. By asking these questions the attorney can gather all the information and may be able to draw a conclusion as to whether you have a case and/or they may provide guidance on what you need to do next, such as filing for the right to sue.
In addition, should you deiced to contact a lawyer to discuss your potential case, you should reach out to an Employment Attorney who offers free consultations.

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3 Excuses an Employer Might Make When They are Accused of Battery and/or ***ual Harassment



3 Excuses an Employer Might Make When They are Accused of Battery and/or ***ual Harassment
The word "battery" is a word you would normally hear while watching your favorite crime drama, but it actually can occur in your very own workplace. Under civil law, particularly in employment law, employees are entitled to bring a claim against their employer if they have been a victim of battery in the workplace. The tort claim requires the employee suing their employer to prove that they were touched or the employer caused the employee to be touched and that the touching was intended to cause the employee harm or cause he or she to find the touching offensive.
An Employment Lawyer is the type of attorney who specializes in this type of situation, especially when a single claim may overlap with another claim. Battery claims do not always come alone though, they are often accompanied by ***ual harassment. There are three features of battery, all of which have the potential to have a ***ual harassment element to each of them. ***ual harassment in the workplace is prohibited by law and employees have the right to sue if they become a victim of unwelcome touching or inappropriate comments.
Below are some of the excuses employers have in response to the battery and ***ual harassment claims.
  1. "I didn't mean to hurt or offend you"
If an employee follows through on pursuing a claim against their employer for battery, they need to prove the employer had intent. On the surface, the intent would seem to mean that the employer made it his or her goal to hurt the employee, however, this is not the case. When making out the elements of battery, the intent is proven by showing the employer intended to do the act that caused the harm. For example, person A smacked person B's buttocks in what person A claimed was just a "love tap" while person B suffered extreme pain in their tailbone, extreme humiliation, and or suffered extreme anxiety from this so-called "love tap". In this example, although person A did not intend to hurt person B, person A did intend to commit the act, smacking B's buttocks, which caused person B harm. Therefore, in that example, person B would be able to prove intent in their battery claim against person A.
  1. "I was just joking, you're not even hurt!"
Satisfying the second element of battery can be tricky in that it is based on contact that is harmful or offensive. Of course, physical harm is more concrete and may be easier for an employee to show if they had a bruise or mark, but how do you prove "offensive"? The law in California says that touching is offensive where a reasonable person would find that it offended or wounded their personal dignity. For example, Sally was an administrative assistant at a marketing agency. Her job required her to spend a lot of time filing paperwork and restoring it in the filing room. One day while she was trying to place a file box on a high shelf, her boss Greg saw she couldn't reach and said "here let me help you" and picked Sally up by placing his hands on her buttocks and waist. Here, although this touching did not harm Sally, she found the touching to be offensive and a reasonable person in Sally's position would likely find the touching of one's buttocks and waist by their boss to be offensive.
Note that harmful or offensive conduct in a battery claim is negated where the touching was unavoidable, it was for a legitimate reason, or it was a touching that is acceptable in the course of everyday life. This means that if the harmful or offensive touching took place during an event that falls under one of those categories, then a claim for the battery may be voidable. For example, let's look at Sally and Greg's situation again. This time, Sally was standing on a ladder to reach the shelf and lost her balance but Greg caught her before she hit the ground. Here, even though Greg may have touched her in a way that might be harmful or offensive, the touching may be considered as unavoidable because she fell on to Greg.
The way in which harmful or offensive is identified can be complex depending on the circumstances. It is best to have an Employment Lawyer analyze the facts of the case to ensure you get a professional and thorough opinion.
  1. "You didn't say no"
Consent is one of the elements that need to be made out in a battery claim. Did the employee tell the employer that he or she wanted to be touched? Did the employee welcome the touching? Often when a battery claim is brought against an employer, they will claim that they thought consent was not necessary. Consent is an important factor in making a claim against an employer in the battery. Where there is no consent for the touching, the employee's case is strengthened.
As seen in the examples above, battery and ***ual harassment often go hand-in-hand. All three elements of battery need to be met in order to have a battery claim and in addition to the battery claim, an employee may have a ***ual harassment claim. If an employee has been ***ually harassed by unwanted touching, he or she may have a claim against their employer for ***ual harassment in addition to the battery claim. Again, ***ual harassment can be characterized as unwanted touching which is where the battery usually ties into the ***ual harassment claim.
Taking all of the information and examples into account, an employee may be able to identify similarities in their own situation at work. Of course, every case is different and it is only with the guidance of legal a professional such as an Employment Lawyer that an employee will know if they have a claim worth pursuing. The Employment Lawyer will want details of the circumstances to ensure that all elements of the battery have been met and the lawyer may also ask questions about the ***ual harassment the employee has experienced.

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7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work


7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
Currently, a majority of employees in California struggle with work-life balance. An individual may be striving for that promotion at work, finding time to go to their kid's soccer game, praying they will finally pay off their student loans, and still finding a moment to hit the gym so they can stay in good health. The average Californian tries to do it all. But what happens when a serious illness gets thrown into the mix for the employee himself or an immediate family member? Or, what if an employee is injured and needs surgery which will require time off from work to recover? More importantly, what if you take a leave of absence and as a result, you are fired? A leave of absence resulting in a termination might mean you were fired for an illegal reason. An Employment Lawyer is the type of lawyer who handles these types of situations. If you are thinking you may need an Employment Lawyer, here are some points to consider that you may not have known.
  1. The number of people you work with may be important
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
It seems odd, but the number of people employed by the organization or company you work for may be a significant factor in whether you have a leave of absence claim. There is a 50/75 rule which means there need to be 50 employees at your job-site, or 50 employees within a 75-mile radius of your job site. For example, you may work for a company that only has 20 employees in your building, that means you don't meet the 50 employee standard. However, if the company has another branch 25 miles away from your job-site and has 30 employees on-site, that may suffice to meet the requirement. Here, the 50/75 rule is likely met because the branch is within the 75- mile radius requirement and adding the branch's employees equals 50 employees total.
It is important to note that the 50/75 rule does not apply to an employee who takes pregnancy disability leave.
  1. Being sick or injured isn't the only type of recognized leave
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
Aside from taking time off for their own illness or injury, an employee may take leave to care for a member of the family who is seriously ill. Also, an employee may take a leave of absence because they are pregnant or for the initial receiving of an adopted or foster child.
  1. Your leave may last up to 12 weeks
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
As an employee, you may have the right to take up to 12 workweeks for your leave of absence. The 12 workweek leave is permitted in a 12 -month time frame. Keep in mind though, your employer has some discretionary power on how the 12-month period is measured. For example, an employer can decide to measure it as a calendar year instead of measuring the 12- months starting on the day the employee took their leave.
  1. You get the best protection the law provides
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
There are multiple statutes that overlap and provide protection for an employee's right to a leave of absence. Although multiple statutes covering leave complicates the process, the good news is that an employee who has taken or needs to take leave is entitled to utilize the statute that provides the best protection and most rights for their particular circumstances.
  1. Your employer can give you more time off than the law requires and you can hold them to it
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
Your employer has to meet certain standards the law sets out for providing leave to employees. But, if your boss is generous, he or she is entitled to exceed those standards and you may be able to enforce what they promised. For example, Brad is an employee at a marketing agency and takes a medical leave to have corrective surgery on his shoulder. Even though he was entitled to 12 weeks of medical leave by law, his employee handbook states that he has 14 weeks. After he took 14 weeks leave for his surgery his boss replaced him and told Brad they no longer had a position for him at the agency. Here, even though by law was only entitled to a 12-week leave, because he was promised 14 weeks in the employee handbook, he may have a claim against his boss for violating the company's own standard.
  1. In most situations, you can't be replaced or demoted
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
If you take a medical leave of absence that is covered by the law, you are entitled to have your original position restored back to you or another position that is equal. For example, Tammy was a full-time employee at a multinational package and delivery company working in the financial accounting sector. She took a leave of absence to care for her child because he was suffering from a serious illness. Upon Tammy's return, the head supervisor of the department told Tammy he had to replace her and now she must work in customer service as a customer service representative. Tammy was devastated by this news because this meant a huge pay-cut for her in comparison to her position in finance. In addition, she was over qualified for the new position. Here, not only was Tammy replaced, she was moved to a position that was considered a demotion from her original position and it was not equal in pay or department. Tammy might have a claim against her employer for violating her right to take a leave of absence to care for her son.
There is an exception if the employee taking leave or did take leave was in a significant position such as a CEO or was high-up in management. In a situation such as this, an employer may not be required to hold the employee's original position.
7. You can't be fired or demoted because you took a leave of absence
7 Things You Didn’t Know About Medical Leave of Absence From Work
After requesting or insisting for leave of absence or taking a leave of absence, your boss can not demote you or fire because you took the leave. By mistreating you, singling you out, demoting you, or transferring you after you put a request in for taking a leave of absence may indicate retaliatory behavior. This basically means your boss is not allowed to punish you or make your job more difficult specifically because you took a leave of absence. This may be considered retaliation which is prohibited by law in California.
In taking all of these points into account, if you have an employment situation that involves issues with you taking a leave of absence, you should reach out to an Employment Lawyer.

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